/Docs/G/CyberSecurityTechAccord.md
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TiCybersecurity Tech Accord: Definitions of the terms used
TiActive defense
secCyber defensive measures designed to inflict damage on an attacker, by exploiting vulnerabilities in attack toolkits, distributing disinformation, inflicting malicious code, etc.
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1 https://www.thecyberwire.com/glossary.html
TiAdversary
secAn individual, group, organization, or government that conducts (or intends to conduct) detrimental activities. This could be done by discovering secret data, corrupting some of the data, spoofing the identity of a message sender, or forcing system downtime.
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2 https://cyberpolicy.com/glossary
TiAdvanced Persistent Threat
secElaborate, multi-step targeted attacks aimed at infiltrating a specific network, such as governmental institutions or companies.
3 https://www.avira.com/en/security-term/t/advanced-persistent-threat/id/2
TiAttack
secAn attempt to gain unauthorized access to system services, resources, or information, or an attempt to compromise system integrity, availability, or confidentiality.
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4 https://niccs.us-cert.gov/glossary
TiAttacker
secA party who acts with malicious intent to compromise an information system.
5 https://csrc.nist.gov/Glossary/?term3019#AlphaIndexDiv
Attribution
Attribution is the process of establishing who is behind a hack.
6 https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/mg79v4/hacking-glossary
6
Backdoor
An unauthorized way of accessing a computer, service, system, or data. Backdoors are designed to remain
undetected by users and administrators or systems.
7 https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/mg79v4/hacking-glossary
A backdoor can be intentional. It could be the result of a well-meaning customer support engineer, a third-party software library, or the actions of a bad actor.
8 https://blogs.cisco.com/security/features-bugs-and-backdoors-the-differences-how-language-can-be-misusedand-a-word-of-caution
TiBreach
secThe moment an attacker successfully exploits a vulnerability in a computer or device, and gains access to
its files and network.
9 https://www.cybintsolutions.com/16-cyber-security-terms-that-you-should-know/
TiBug
1.secA bug is a flaw or error in a software program or service.
10 https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/mg79v4/hacking-glossary
2.secA product bug is clearly unintentional, as it can negatively affect the customer experience.
11 https://blogs.cisco.com/security/features-bugs-and-backdoors-the-differences-how-language-can-be-misusedand-a-word-of-caution
TiCivilian
secNoncombatant, nonmilitary person, ordinary citizen, private citizen not affiliated with or benefiting a
nation-state entity.
Cyber defense
1.secSynchronized, real-time capability to discover, detect, analyze, and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities.
12 https://csrc.nist.gov/Glossary/?term2820#AlphaIndexDiv
2.secIt involves no intrusion into hostile or non-cooperating networks or systems, but focuses entirely on the
defended networks.
TiCyber exposure
secCyber exposure includes broad visibility into the security of any asset across any computing environment, spanning traditional IT, cloud environments and Internet of Things, to accurately determine where and to what extent an asset is secure or exposed. Cyber exposure also translates technical data into business insights to measure cyber risk in a way that enables better strategic decisions based on business risk.13
13 https://www.tenable.com/cyber-exposure
Cyber espionage
Cyber espionage is the use of computer networks to gain illicit access to confidential information.14
14 https://cyberpolicy.com/glossary
15 https://csrc.nist.gov/Glossary/?term3818#AlphaIndexDiv
16 https://www.rand.org/topics/cyber-warfare.html
17 https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/definition/distributed-denial-of-service-temp
Cyber offense
Unprovoked and deliberate malicious exploitation of computer systems, technology-dependent
enterprises and networks.
Cyber space
The interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, and includes the Internet,
telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers in critical
industries.
15
Cyber warfare
Cyber warfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to
damage another nation's computers or information networks through, for example, computer viruses or
denial-of-service attacks.
16
Cyber weapon
A tool, device, or software that is the direct and proximate cause of or is used with intent to cause significant
physical damage, including injury or death to persons or damage or destruction of physical objects, that
constitutes a use of force under international law and the U.N. Charter.
DDoS
Distributed denial of service [DDoS] is a type of cyber-attack that entails having attackers utilize a large
network of remote PCs, called botnets, to overwhelm another system’s connection or processor, causing
it to deny service to the legitimate traffic it’s receiving. A DDoS attack is designed to interrupt or shut down
a network, service, or website and make it unavailable for legitimate traffic requests.
17
Exploit
A malicious application or script that can be used to take advantage of a computer’s vulnerability.
18
Hack back
The use of active defenses to counterattack in response to a cyber-attack.
Incident
An occurrence that actually or potentially jeopardizes the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an
information system or the information the system processes, stores, or transmits or that constitutes a
violation or imminent threat of violation of security policies, security procedures, or acceptable use
policies.
19
Intrusion detection
The process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network to detect signs of
unauthorized access or attack.20
Nation-state attack
A cyber-attack conducted by nation states or state-backed cybercriminals.
Penetration testing
An evaluation methodology whereby assessors search for vulnerabilities and attempt to circumvent the
security features of a network and/or information system.21
Phishing
Phishing is a form of identity theft in which a scammer uses an authentic-looking email from a legitimate
business to trick recipients into giving out sensitive personal information, such as a credit card, bank
account, or other sensitive personal information.22
Risk
A function of the likelihood of a given threat-source exercising a particular potential vulnerability, and the
resulting impact of that adverse event on the organization23
.
Root Cause Analysis
A principle-based, systems approach for the identification of underlying causes associated with a particular
set of risks24
.
Rootkit
A rootkit is a clandestine computer program designed to provide continued privileged access to a
computer while actively hiding its presence25
.
Spear Phishing
Spear phishing is a phishing method that targets specific individuals or groups within an organization. It is
a potent variant of phishing, a malicious tactic which uses emails, social media, instant messaging, and
other platforms to get users to divulge personal information or perform actions that cause network
compromise, data loss, or financial loss.
26
Spoofing
A spoofing attack happens when a malicious party successfully impersonates another user or device.27
Tampering
An intentional but unauthorized act resulting in the modification of a system, components of systems, its
intended behavior, or data.
28
Threat
A threat, in the context of computer security, refers to anything that has the potential to cause serious
harm to a computer system. A threat is something that may or may not happen, but has the potential to
cause serious damage29
.
Vulnerability
A characteristic or specific weakness that renders an organization or asset (such as information or an
information system) open to exploitation by a given threat or susceptible to a given hazard.
30
Vulnerability scanning
An automated process to proactively identify security weaknesses in a network or individual system.
31
Weakness
A shortcoming or imperfection in software code, design, architecture, or deployment that, under proper
conditions, could become a vulnerability or contribute to the introduction of vulnerabilities.
32
18 https://www.cybintsolutions.com/16-cyber-security-terms-that-you-should-know/
19 https://csrc.nist.gov/Glossary/?term4730#AlphaIndexDiv
20 https://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Documents/Glossary/Cybersecurity_Fundamentals_glossary.pdf
21 https://niccs.us-cert.gov/glossary
22 https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/definition/phishing
23 https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/legacy/sp/nistspecialpublication800-30r1.pdf
24 https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-39/final
25 https://www.veracode.com/security/rootkit
26 https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/definition/spear-phishing
27 https://www.veracode.com/security/spoofing-definition
28 https://csrc.nist.gov/Glossary/?term2082#AlphaIndexDiv
29 https://www.techopedia.com/definition/25263/threat
30 https://identity.utexas.edu/everyone/glossary-of-identity-and-cybersecurity-terms
31 https://www.isaca.org/Knowledge-Center/Documents/Glossary/Cybersecurity_Fundamentals_glossary.pdf
32 https://identity.utexas.edu/everyone/glossary-of-identity-and-cybersecurity-terms